The Testimony of John B. Connally

The CHAIRMAN. You may be seated, Governor. Mr. Specter will conduct the examination.
Mr. SPECTER. Will you state your full name for the record, please?
Governor CONNALLY. John Bowden Connally.
Mr. SPECTER. What is your official position with the State of Texas, sir?
Governor CONNALLY. I am now Governor of the State of Texas.
Mr. SPECTER. Did you have occasion to be in the automobile which carried President John F. Kennedy through Dallas, Tex., back on November 22, 1963.
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, sir; I did.
Mr. SPECTER. Will you outline briefly, please, the circumstances leading up to the President's planning a trip to Texas in November of last year?
Governor CONNALLY. You want to go back to--how far back do you want to


go, a few days immediately prior to the trip or a month before, or all of the circumstances surrounding it?
Mr. SPECTER. Well, just a very brief picture leading up to the trip, Governor, starting with whatever point you think would be most appropriate to give some outline of the origin of the trip.
Governor CONNALLY. Well, it had been thought that he should come to Texas for a period of many months, as a matter of fact. There was some thought given to it during 1962. The trip kept being delayed. Finally in the fall of 1963 it was decided that he definitely should come, or should come in the fall of last year as opposed to waiting until this year, when his appearance might have more political overtones.
So I came up, I have forgotten the exact date, around the middle of October and talked to him about it, discussed the details, asked him what he would like to do.
He said he would like to do whatever he could do that was agreeable with me; it was agreeable with me that he more or less trust me to plan the trip for him, to tell him where he would like to go. About that time some thought was being given to having four fundraising dinners. His attitude on that was he wouldn't prefer that. He felt that the appearances would not be too good, that he would much prefer to have one if we were going to have any. I told him this was entirely consistent with my own thoughts. We ought not to have more than one fundraising dinner. If we did, it ought to be in Austin. If we could do it, I would like for him to see and get into as many areas of the State as possible while he was there.
He, on his own, had made a commitment to go to the dinner for Congressman Albert Thomas, which was being given the night of the 21st in Houston, so shortly, really before he got there, and when I say shortly I would say 2 weeks before he came, the plans were altered a little bit in that he landed originally in San Antonio in the afternoon about 1:30 of the afternoon of the 21st. From there we went to Houston, attended the Thomas dinner that night at about 8 o'clock.
After that we flew to Fort Worth, spent the night at the Texas Hotel, had a breakfast there the next morning, and left about 10 o'clock, 10:30, for the flight over to Dallas.
Mr. SPECTER. In what vehicle did you fly from Fort Worth to Dallas?
Governor CONNALLY. In Air Force 1.
Mr. SPECTER. And approximately what time did you arrive at Love Field, Tex.
Governor CONNALLY. I would say about 11:50, 12:00, shortly before noon. I believe the luncheon was planned for 12:30, and we were running on schedule. I believe it was 11:50.
Mr. SPECTER. Would you describe for us briefly the ceremonies at Love Field on the arrival of the President?
Governor CONNALLY. Well, we, as usual, the President had a receiving line there. I conducted Mrs. Kennedy through the receiving line and introduced her to about 15 or 17 people who were there as an official welcoming committee.
The President came right behind, was introduced to them, and then he and Mrs. Kennedy both went over to the railing and spoke to a number of people who were standing around, who visited for 5 or 10 minutes, and then we got into the car as we had customarily done at each of the stops, and Mrs. Connally and I got on the jump seats, and with the President and Mrs. Kennedy on the back seat, and took off for the long motorcade downtown.
Mr. SPECTER. I will now hand you a photograph which I have marked "Commission Exhibit 697," Governor Connally, and ask you if that accurately depicts the occupants of the car as you were starting that motorcade trip through Dallas?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes; it does.
Mr. SPECTER. Do you know the identities of the men who are riding in the front seat of the car?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes. Roy Kellerman is on the right front. He is a Secret Service agent, and Bill--I can't remember the other's name----
Mr. SPECTER. Greer.


I hand you another photograph here, Governor, marked as "Commission Exhibit 698," and ask you if that is a picture of the President's automobile during its ride through the downtown area of Dallas?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes; I assume it is. This is certainly the President's automobile, and this is the precise position that each of us occupied in the ride through Dallas. It was the same position, and could be a photograph, of any number of places that we went. But I was seated in the jump seat immediately in front of him, and Mrs. Connally was seated immediately in front of Mrs. Kennedy in the jump seat, and Roy Kellerman was immediately in front of me.
Mr. SPECTER. Mr. Chief Justice, may I move at this time the admission into evidence of Exhibits 697 and 698?
The CHAIRMAN. They may be admitted.
(The items marked Commission Exhibits Nos. 697 and 698 were received in evidence.)
Mr. SPECTER. What was the relative height of the Jump seats, Governor, with respect to the seat of the President and Mrs. Kennedy immediately to your rear?
Governor CONNALLY. They were somewhat lower. The back seat of that particular Lincoln limousine, which is a specially designed and built automobile, as you know, for the President of the United States, has an adjustable back seat. It can be lowered or raised. I would say the back seat was approximately 6 inches higher than the jump seats on which Mrs. Connally and I sat.
Mr. SPECTER. Do you know for certain whether or not the movable back seat was elevated at the time?
Governor CONNALLY. No; I could not be sure of it, although I know there were---there was a time or two when he did elevate it, and I think beyond question on most of the ride in San Antonio, Forth Worth, Houston, and Dallas, it was elevated. For a while the reason I know is--I sat on the back seat with him during part of the ride, particularly in San Antonio, not in Dallas, but in San Antonio. The wind was blowing, and we were traveling fairly fast, and Mrs. Kennedy preferred to sit on the jump seat, and I was sitting on the back seat part of the time, and the seat was elevated, and I think it was on substantially all the trip.
Mr. SPECTER. Was the portion elevated, that where only the President sat?
Governor CONNALLY. No: the entire back seat.
Mr. SPECTER. Describe in a general way the size and reaction of the crowd on the motorcade route, if you would, please, Governor?
Governor CONNALLY. When we got into Dallas, there was quite a large crowd at the airport to greet their President, I would say several thousand people.
Part way downtown, in the thinly populated areas of Dallas, where we traveled, the crowds were not thick and were somewhat restrained in their reaction. By restrained, I mean they were not wildly enthusiastic, but they were grown people. There was a mature crowd as we went through some of the residential areas. They applauded and they were obviously very friendly in their conduct.
But as we, of course, approached downtown, the downtown area of Dallas, going down the main street, the crowds were tremendous. They were stacked from the curb and even outside the curb, back against the back walls. It was a huge crowd. I would estimate there were 250,000 people that had lined the streets that day as we went down.
The further you went the more enthusiastic the response was, and the reception. It was a tremendous reception, to the point where just as we turned on Houston Street off of Main, and turned on Houston, down by the courthouse, Mrs. Connally remarked to the President, "Well, Mr. President, you can't say there aren't some people in Dallas who love you." And the President replied, "That is very obvious," or words to that effect.
So I would say the reception that he got in Dallas was equal to, if not more, enthusiastic than those he had received in Fort Worth, San Antonio, and Houston.


Mr. SPECTER. Are there any other conversations which stand out in your mind on the portion of the motorcade trip through Dallas itself?
Governor CONNALLY. No; actually we had more or less. desultory conversation as we rode along. The crowds were thick all the way down on both sides, and all of us were, particularly the President and Mrs. Kennedy were, acknowledging the crowds. They would turn frequently, smiling, waving to the people, and the opportunity for conversation was limited. So there was no particularly significant conversation or conversations Which took place. It was, as I say, pretty desultory conversation.
Mr. SPECTER. Did the automobile stop at any point during this procession?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes; it did. There were at least two occasions on which the automobile stopped in Dallas and, perhaps, a third. There was one little girl, I believe it was, who was carrying a sign saying, "Mr. President, will you please stop and shake hands with me," or some---that was the import of the sign, and he just told the driver to stop, and he did stop and shook hands, and, of course, he was immediately mobbed by a bunch of youngsters, and the Secret Service men from the car following us had to immediately come up and wedge themselves in between the crowd and the car to keep them back away from the automobile, and it was a very short stop.
At another point along the route, a Sister, a Catholic nun, was there, obviously from a Catholic school, with a bunch of little children, and he stopped and spoke to her and to the children; and I think there was one other stop on the way downtown, but I don't recall the precise occasion. But I know there were two, but I think there was still another one.
Mr. SPECTER. Are there any other events prior to the time of the shooting itself which stand out in your mind on the motorcade trip through Dallas?
Governor CONNALLY. No; not that have any particular significance.
Mr. SPECTER. As to the comment which Mrs. Connally had made to President Kennedy which you just described, where on the motor trip was that comment made, if you recall?
Governor CONNALLY. This was just before we turned on Elm Street, after we turned off of Main.
Mr. SPECTER. Onto Houston?
Governor CONNALLY. Onto Houston, right by the courthouse before we turned left onto Elm Street, almost at the end of the motorcade, and almost, I would say, perhaps a minute before the fatal shooting.
Mr. SPECTER. What was the condition of the crowd at that juncture of the motorcade, sir?
Governor CONNALLY. At that particular juncture, when she made this remark, the crowd was still very thick and very enthusiastic. It began to thin immediately after we turned onto Elm Street. We could look ahead and see that the crowd was beginning to thin along the banks, just east, I guess of the overpass.
Mr. SPECTER. Was there any difficulty in hearing such a conversational comment?
Governor CONNALLY. No, no; we could talk without any, and hear very clearly, without any difficulty, without any particular strain. We didn't do it again because in trying to carry on a conversation it would be apparent to those who were the spectators on the sidewalk, and we didn't want to leave the impression we were not interested in them, and so we just didn't carry on a conversation, but we could do so without any trouble.
Mr. SPECTER. As the automobile turned left onto Elm from Houston, what did occur there, Governor?
Governor CONNALLY. We had--we had gone, I guess, 150 feet, maybe 200 feet, I don't recall how far it was, heading down to get on the freeway, the Stemmons Freeway, to go out to the hall where we were going to have lunch and, as I say, the crowds had begun to thin, and we could--I was anticipating that we were going to be at the hall in approximately 5 minutes from the time we turned on Elm Street.
We had just made the turn, well, when I heard what I thought was a shot. I heard this noise which I immediately took to be a rifle shot. I instinctively turned to my right because the sound appeared to come from over my right


shoulder, so I turned to look back over my right shoulder, and I saw nothing unusual except just people in the crowd, but I did not catch the President in the corner of my eye, and I was interested, because once I heard the shot in my own mind I identified it as a rifle shot, and I immediately--the only thought that crossed my mind was that this is an assassination attempt.
So I looked, failing to see him, I was turning to look back over my left shoulder into the back seat, but I never got that far in my turn. I got about in the position I am in now facing you, looking a little bit to the left of center, and then I felt like someone had hit me in the back.
Mr. SPECTER. What is the best estimate that you have as to the time span between the sound of the first shot and the feeling of someone hitting you in the back which you just described?
Governor CONNALLY. A very, very brief span of time. Again my trend of thought just happened to be, I suppose along this line, I immediately thought that this--that I had been shot. I knew it when I just looked down and I was covered with blood, and the thought immediately passed through my mind that there were either two or three people involved or more in this or someone was shooting with an automatic rifle. These were just thoughts that went through my mind because of the rapidity of these two, of the first shot plus the blow that I took, and I knew I had been hit, and I immediately assumed, because of the amount of blood, and in fact, that it had obviously passed through my chest. that I had probably been fatally hit.
So I merely doubled up, and then turned to my right again and began to--I just sat there, and Mrs. Connally pulled me over to her lap. She was sitting, of course, on the jump seat, so I reclined with my head in her lap, conscious all the time, and with my eyes open; and then, of course, the third shot sounded, and I heard the shot very clearly. I heard it hit him. I heard the shot hit something, and I assumed again--it never entered my mind that it ever hit anybody but the President. I heard it hit. It was a very loud noise, just that audible, very clear.
Immediately I could see on my clothes, my clothing, I could see on the interior of the car which, as I recall, was a pale blue, brain tissue, which I immediately recognized, and I recall very well, on my trousers there was one chunk of brain tissue as big as almost my thumb, thumbnail, and again I did not see the President at any time either after the first, second, or third shots, but I assumed always that it was he who was hit and no one else.
I immediately, when I was hit, I said, "Oh, no, no, no." And then I said, "My God, they are going to kill us all." Nellie, when she pulled me over into her lap----
Mr. SPECTER. Nellie is Mrs. Connally?
Governor CONNALLY. Mrs. Connally. When she pulled me over into her lap, she could tell I was still breathing and moving, and she said, "Don't worry, Be quiet. You are going to be all right." She Just kept telling me I was going to be all right.
After the third shot, and I heard Roy Kellerman tell the driver, "Bill, get out of line." And then I saw him move, and I assumed he was moving a button or something on the panel of the automobile, and he said, "Get us to a hospital quick." I assumed he was saying this to the patrolman, the motorcycle police who were leading us.
At about that time, we began to pull out of the cavalcade, out of the line, and I lost consciousness and didn't regain consciousness until we got to the hospital.
Mr. SPECTER. Governor Connally, I hand you a photograph, marked Commission Exhibit 699, which is an overhead shot of Dealey Plaza depicting the intersection of Houston and Elm, and ask you if you would take a look at that photograph and mark for us, if you would, with one of the red pencils at your right, the position of the President's automobile as nearly as you can where it was at the time the shooting first started.
Governor CONNALLY. I would say it would be about where this truck is here. It looks like a truck. I would say about in that neighborhood.
Mr. SPECTER. Would you place your initials, Governor, by the mark that you made there?


Governor, you have described hearing a first shot and a third shot. Did you hear a second shot?
Governor CONNALLY. No; I did not.
Mr. SPECTER. What is your best estimate as to the timespan between the first shot which you heard and the shot which you heretofore characterized as the third shot?
Governor CONNALLY. It was a very brief span of time; oh, I would have to say a matter of seconds. I don't know, 10, 12 seconds. It was extremely rapid, so much so that again I thought that whoever was firing must be firing with an automatic rifle because of the rapidity of the shots; a very short period of time.
Mr. SPECTER. What was your impression then as to the source of the shot?
Governor CONNALLY. From back over my right shoulder which, again, was where immediately when I heard the first shot I identified the sound as coming back over my right-shoulder.
Mr. SPECTER. At an elevation?
Governor CONNALLY. At an elevation. I would have guessed at an elevation.
Mr. SPECTER. Excuse me.
Governor CONNALLY. Well, that is all.
Mr. SPECTER. Did you have an impression as to the source of the third shot?
Governor CONNALLY. The same. I would say the same.
Mr. SPECTER. How fast was the President's automobile proceeding at that time?
Governor CONNALLY. I would guess between 20 and 22 miles an hour, and it is a guess because I didn't look at the speedometer, but I would say in that range.
Mr. SPECTER. Did President Kennedy make any statement during the time of the shooting or immediately prior thereto?
Governor CONNALLY. He never uttered a sound at all that I heard.
Mr. SPECTER. Did Mrs. Kennedy state anything at that time?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes; I have to--I would say it was after the third shot when she said, "They have killed my husband."
Mr. SPECTER. Did she say anything more?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes; she said, I heard her say one time, "I have got his brains in my hand."
Mr. SPECTER. Did that constitute everything that she said at that time?
Governor CONNALLY. That is all I heard her say.
Mr. SPECTER. Did Mrs. Connally say anything further at this time?
Governor CONNALLY. All she said to me was, after I was hit when she pulled me over in her lap, she said, "Be quiet, you are going to be all right. Be still, you are going to be all right." She just kept repeating that.
Mr. SPECTER. Was anything further stated by Special Agent Roy Kellerman other than that which you have already testified about?
Governor CONNALLY. No; those are the only two remarks that I heard him make.
Mr. SPECTER. Was any statement made by Special Agent William Greer at or about the time of the shooting?
Governor CONNALLY. No; I did not hear Bill say anything.
Mr. SPECTER. Did you observe any reaction by President Kennedy after the shooting?
Governor CONNALLY. No; I did not see him.
Mr. SPECTER. Did you observe any reaction by Mrs. Kennedy after the shooting?
Governor CONNALLY. I did not see her. This almost sounds incredible, I am sure, since we were in the car with them. But again I will repeat very briefly when what I believe to be the shot first occurred, I turned to my right, which was away from both of them, of course, and looked out and could see neither, and then as I was turning to look into the back seat where I would have seen both of them, I was hit, so I never completed the turn at all, and I never saw either one of them after the firing started, and, of course, as I have testified, then Mrs. Connally pulled me over into her lap and I was facing forward with my head slightly turned up to where I could see the driver and Roy Kellerman on his right, but I could not see into the back seat, so I didn't see either one of them.


Mr. SPECTER. When you turned to your right. Governor Connally, immediately after you heard the first shot. what did you see on that occasion?
Governor CONNALLY. Nothing of any significance except just people out on the grass slope. I didn't see anything that was out of the ordinary, just saw men, women, and children.
Mr. SPECTER. Do you have any estimate as to the distance which the President's automobile traveled during the shooting?
Governor CONNALLY. No; I hadn't thought about it, but I would suppose in 10 to 12 seconds, I suppose you travel a couple of hundred feet.
Mr. SPECTER. Did you observe any bullet or fragments of bullet strike the windshield?
Governor CONNALLY. No.
Mr. SPECTER. Did you observe any bullet or fragments of bullet strike the metal chrome?
Governor CONNALLY. No.
Mr. SPECTER. Did you experience any sensation of being struck any place other than that which you have described on your chest?
Governor CONNALLY. No.
Mr. SPECTER. What other wounds, if any, did you sustain?
Governor CONNALLY. A fractured wrist and a wound in the thigh, just above the knee.
Mr. SPECTER. What thigh?
Governor CONNALLY. Left thigh; just above the knee.
Mr. SPECTER. Where on the wrist were you injured, sir?
Governor CONNALLY. I don't know how you describe it.
Mr. SPECTER. About how many inches up from the wrist joint?
Governor CONNALLY. I would say an inch above the wrist bone, but on the inner bone of the wrist where the bullet went in here and came out almost in the center of the wrist on the underside.
Mr. SPECTER. About an inch from the base of the palm?
Governor CONNALLY. About an inch from the base of the palm, a little less than an inch, three-quarters of an inch.
Mr. SPECTER. Were you conscious of receiving that wound on the wrist at the time you sustained it?
Governor CONNALLY. No, sir; I was not.
Mr. SPECTER. When did you first know you were wounded in the right wrist?
Governor CONNALLY. When I came to in the hospital on Saturday, the next morning, and I looked up and my arm was tied up in a hospital bed, and I said, "What is wrong with my arm?" And they told me then that I had a shattered wrist, and that is when I also found out I had a wound in the thigh.
Mr. SPECTER. Can you describe the nature of the wound in the thigh?
Governor CONNALLY. Well, just a raw, open wound, looked like a fairly deep penetration.
Mr. SPECTER. Indicating about 2 inches?
Governor CONNALLY. No; I would say about an inch, an inch and a quarter long is all; fairly wide, I would say a quarter of an inch wide, maybe more, a third of an inch wide, and about an inch and a quarter, an inch and a half long.
Mr. SPECTER. Were you conscious that you had been wounded on the left thigh at the time it occurred?
Governor CONNALLY. No.
Mr. SPECTER. Did you first notice that in the hospital on the following day also?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes.
Mr. SPECTER. In your view, which bullet caused the injury to your chest, Governor Connally?
Governor CONNALLY. The second one.
Mr. SPECTER. And what is your reason for that conclusion, sir?
Governor CONNALLY. Well, in my judgment, it just couldn't conceivably have been the first one because I heard the sound of the shot, In the first place, don't know anything about the velocity of this particular bullet, but any rifle has a velocity that exceeds the speed of sound, and when I heard the sound of that first shot, that bullet had already reached where I was, or it had reached


that far, and after I heard that shot, I had the time to turn to my right, and start to turn to my left before I felt anything.
It is not conceivable to me that I could have been hit by the first bullet, and then I felt the blow from something which was obviously a bullet, which I assumed was a bullet, and I never heard the second shot, didn't hear it. I didn't hear but two shots. I think I heard the first shot and the third shot.
Mr. SPECTER. Do you have any idea as to why you did not hear the second shot?
Governor CONNALLY. Well, first, again I assume the bullet was traveling faster than the sound. I was hit by the bullet prior to the time the sound reached me, and I was in either a state of shock or the impact was such that the sound didn't even register on me, but I was never conscious of hearing the second shot at all.
Obviously, at least the major wound that I took in the shoulder through the chest couldn't have been anything but the second shot. Obviously, it couldn't have been the third, because when the third shot was fired I was in a reclining position, and heard it, saw it and the effects of it, rather--I didn't see it, I saw the effects of it--so it obviously could not have been the third, and couldn't have been the first, in my judgment.
Mr. SPECTER. What was the nature of the exit wound on the front side of your chest, Governor?
Governor CONNALLY. I would say, if the Committee would be interested, I would just as soon you look at it. Is there any objection to any of you looking at it?
Governor CONNALLY. You can tell yourself.
I would say, to describe it for the record, however, that it, the bullet, went in my back just below the right shoulder blade, at just about the point that the right arm joins the shoulder, right in that groove, and exited about 2 inches toward the center of the body from the right nipple of my chest. I can identify these for you.
The bullet went in here see if I properly describe that--about the juncture of the right arm and the shoulder.
Mr. SPECTER. Let the record show that the Governor has removed his shirt and we can view the wound on the back which he is pointing toward.
Governor CONNALLY. The other two are tubes that were inserted in my back by the doctors.
Mr. SPECTER. Dr. Shaw is present and he can, perhaps, describe with identifiable precision where the wounds are.
Dr. SHAW. There is the wound of the drain that has been specifically described. It was not as large as the scar indicated because in cleaning up the ragged edges of the wound, some of the skin was excised in order to make a cleaner incision. This scar--- -
Mr. SPECTER. Will you describe the location, Doctor, of that wound on the Governor's back?
Dr. SHAW. Yes. It is on the right shoulder, I will feel it, just lateral to the shoulder blade, the edge of which is about 2 centimeters from the wound, and just above and slightly medial to the crease formed by the axilla or the armpit, the arm against the chest wall.
Mr. SPECTER. What other scars are shown there on the Governor's back?
Dr. SHAW. The other scars are surgically induced. This is the incision that was made to drain the depth of the subscapular space.
Mr. SPECTER. And there you are indicating an incision at what location, please?
Dr. SHAW. Just at the angle of the shoulder blade. Here is the angle of the shoulder blade.
These incisions were never closed by suture. These incisions were left open and they healed by what we call secondary intention, because in this case there was what we call a Penrose drain, which is a soft-rubber drain going up into the depths of the shoulder to allow any material to drain. This was to prevent infection. The other small opening was the one in which the tube was placed through the eighth interspace.


Mr. SPECTER. Indicate its location, please, Doctor, on his back.
Dr. SHAW. This is lower on the right back in what we refer to as the posterior axillary line, roughly this line.
Mr. SPECTER. There you are drawing a vertical, virtually vertical line?
Dr. SHAW. Yes. It is on the right back, but getting close to the lateral portion of the chest. This also was a stab wound which was never sutured. There was a rubber drain through this that led to what we call a water seal bottle to allow for drainage of the inside of the chest.
Mr. SPECTER. Indicating again the second medically inflicted wound.
Dr. SHAW. Yes; that is right.
Mr. SPECTER. Will you now, Doctor, describe the location of the wound of exit on the Governor's chest, please?
Dr. SHAW. Yes. The wound of exit was beneath and medial to the nipple. Here was this V that I was indicating. It is almost opposite that At the time of the wound there was a ragged oval hole here at least 5 centimeters in diameter, but the skin edges were. excised, and here again this scar does not look quite as nice as it does during the more lateral portion of the surgically induced incision, because this skin was brought together under a little tension, and there is a little separation there.
Mr. SPECTER. Will you describe the entire scar there, Doctor, for the record, please?
Dr. SHAW. Yes. The entire surgical incision runs from the anterior portion of the chest just lateral to the, we call it, the condral arch, the V formed by the condral arch, and then extends laterally below the nipple, running up, curving up, into the posterior axillary portion or the posterior lateral wall of the chest.
Mr. SPECTER. What is the total length of the scar, Doctor?
Dr. SHAW. Twenty centimeters, about.
Mr. DULLES. Where was the center of the bullet wound itself in that scar about?
Dr. SHAW. Here.
Mr. DULLES. There?
Dr. SHAW. Yes. All of the rest of this incision was necessary to gain access to the depths of the wound for the debridement, for removing all of the destroyed tissue because of the passage of the bullet.
Mr. DULLES. Would you give us in your hand the area of declination from the entry to the----
Dr. SHAW. This way.
Mr, DULLES. Yes.
Mr. SPECTER. Can you estimate that angle for us, Doctor?
Dr. SHAW. We are talking about the angle now, of course, with the horizontal, and I would say--you don't have a caliper there, do you?
Dr. SHAW. I was going to guess somewhere between 25 and 30 .
Mr. DULLES. Sorry to ask these questions.
Governor CONNALLY. That is fine. I think it is an excellent question.
Dr. SHAW. Well, this puts it right at 25 .
Mr. SPECTER. That is the angle then of elevation as you are measuring it?
Dr. SHAW. Measuring from back to front, it is the elevation of the posterior wound over the anterior wound.
The CHAIRMAN. The course being downward back to front?
Dr. SHAW. Yes.
Governor CONNALLY. Back to front.
Dr. SHAW. At the time of the initial examination, as I described, this portion of the Governor's chest was mobile, it was moving in and out because of the softening of the chest, and that was the reason I didn't want the skin incision to be directly over that, because to get better healing it is better to have a firm pad of tissue rather than having the incision directly over the softened area.
Mr. DULLES. Doctor, would the angle be the same if the Governor were seated now the way he was in the chair?
Dr. SHAW. That is a good question. Of course, we don't know exactly whether


he was back or tipped forward. But I don't think there is going to be much difference.
Mr. DULLES. Were you seated in about that way, Governor?
Governor CONNALLY. Mr. Dulles, I would say I was in about this position when I was hit, with my face approximately looking toward you, 20 off of center.
Dr. SHAW. Yes; I got 27 . That didn't make much difference.
Mr. SPECTER. Is that reading taken then while the Governor is in a seated position, Doctor?
Dr. SHAW. Yes, seated; yes.
Representative BOGGS. May I ask a question? How would his hand have been under those circumstances, Doctor, for the bullet to hit his wrist?
Dr. GREGORY. I think it fits very well, really, remembering at the other end the trajectory is right here, and there would be no problem to pose his hands in that Fashion, and if you will note, you can see it best from over here really, because you did see that the point of entry, and you can visualize his thigh, there is no problem to visualize the trajectory.
Mr. DULLES. Would you be naturally holding your hand in that position?
Dr. GREGORY. It could be any place.
Governor CONNALLY. It could be anywhere on that line, Mr. Dulles. Mr. Chief Justice, you see this is the leg.
Dr. SHAW. Of course, the wound is much smaller than this.
Mr. SPECTER. Let the record show the Governor has displayed the left thigh showing the scar caused by the entry of the missile in the left thigh.
Dr. Gregory, will you describe the locale of that?
Dr. GREGORY. Yes. This scar, excisional scar, is a better term, if I may just interject that----
Mr. SPECTER. Please do.
Dr. GREGORY. The excisional scar to the Governor's thigh is located at a point approximately 10 or 12 centimeters above the adductor tubercule of the femur, placing it at the Juncture of the middle and distal third of his thigh.
Mr. SPECTER. In lay language, Doctor, about how far is that up from the knee area?
Dr. GREGORY. Five inches, 6 inches.
Mr. SPECTER. Governor Connally, can you recreate the position that you were sitting in in the automobile, as best you can recollect, at the time you think you were struck?
Governor CONNALLY. I think, having turned to look over my right shoulder, then revolving to look over my left shoulder, I threw my right wrist over on my left leg.
Mr. SPECTER. And in the position you are seated now, with your right wrist on your left leg, with your little finger being an inch or two from your knee?
Governor CONNALLY. From the knee.
Mr. SPECTER. And, Dr. Gregory, would that be in approximate alinement which has been characterized on Commission Exhibit----
Dr. GREGORY. I think it fits reasonably well; yes, sir.
Mr. SPECTER. In a moment here I can get that exhibit.
Mr. DULLES. May I ask a question in the meantime?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, sir.
Mr. DULLES. You turned to the right, as I recall your testimony, because you heard the sound coming from the right?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, sir.
Mr. DULLES. How did you happen to turn then to the left, do you remember why that was?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, sir; I know exactly. I turned to the right both to see, because it was an instinctive movement, because that is where the sound came from, but even more important, I immediately thought it was a rifleshot, I immediately thought of an assassination attempt, and I turned to see if I could see the President, to see if he was all right. Failing to see him over my right shoulder, I turned to look over my left shoulder.
Mr. DULLES. I see.
Governor CONNALLY. Into the back seat, and I never completed that turn. I


got no more than substantially looking forward, a little bit to the left of forward, when I got hit.
Representative BOGGS. May I ask one of the doctors a question? What is the incidence of recovery from a wound of this type?
Dr. GREGORY. I will defer the answer to Dr. Shaw. From the wrist, excellent so far as recovery is concerned. Functionally, recovery is going to be good, too, and Dr. Shaw can take on the other one.
Dr. SHAW. We never had any doubt about the Governor's recovery. We knew what we had to do and we felt he could recover. I think I indicated that to Mrs. Connally.
Governor CONNALLY. As soon as you got into the chest and found out what it was.
Representative BOGGS. But there was a very serious wound, was there not, Doctor?
Dr. SHAW. Yes. It was both a shocking and painful wound, and the effects of the wound, the immediate effects of the wound, were very dangerous as far as Governor Connally was concerned, because he had what we call a sucking wound of the chest. This would not allow him to breathe. I think instinctively what happened, while he was riding in the car on the way to the hospital, he probably had his arm across, and he may have instinctively closed that sucking area to some extent. But they had to immediately put an occlusive dressing on it as soon as he got inside to keep him from sucking air in and out of the right chest.
Representative BOGGS. Had hospitalization been delayed for about another half hour or so----
Dr. SHAW. That is speculation, but I don't think he could have maintained breathing, sufficient breathing, for a half hour with that type of wound. It is a little speculation. It would depend on how well he could protect himself. We have had instances where by putting their jackets around them like this, they could occlude this, and go for a considerable period of time. Airmen during the war instinctively protected themselves in this way.
Representative BOGGS. You have no doubt about his physical ability to serve as Governor?
Dr. SHAW. None whatever. [Laughter.]
Senator COOPER. I am just trying to remember whether we asked you, Doctor, if you probed the wound in the thigh to see how deep it was.
Dr. GREGORY. I did not, Senator. Dr. Tom Shires at our institution attended that wound, and I have his description to go on, what he found, what he had written, and his description is that it did not penetrate the thigh very deeply, just to the muscle, but not beyond that.
Representative BOGGS. Just one other question of the Doctor. Having looked at the wound, there is no doubt in either of your minds that that bullet came from the rear, is there?
Dr. GREGORY. There has never been any doubt in my mind about the origin of the missile; no.
Representative BOGGS. And in yours?
Dr. SHAW. No.
Mr. SPECTER. Governor Connally, this is the exhibit which I was referring to, being 689. Was that your approximate position except--that is the alinement with your right hand being on your left leg as you have just described?
Governor CONNALLY. No; it looks like my right hand is up on my chest. But I don't know. I can't say with any degree of certainty where my right hand was, frankly.
Mr. SPECTER. Governor Connally----
Governor CONNALLY. It could have been up on my chest, it could have been suspended in the air, it could have been down on my leg, it could have been anywhere. I just don't remember.
I obviously, I suppose, like anyone else, wound up the next day realizing I was hit in three places, and I was not conscious of having been hit but by one bullet, so I tried to reconstruct how I could have been hit in three places by the same bullet, and I merely, I know it penetrated from the back through the chest first.


I assumed that I had turned as I described a moment ago, placing my right hand on my left leg, that it hit my wrist, went out the center of the wrist, the underside, and then into my leg, but it might not have happened that way at all.
Mr. SPECTER. Were your knees higher on the jump seat than they would be on a normal chair such as you are sitting on?
Governor CONNALLY. I would say it was not unlike this, with the exception the knees might be slightly higher, perhaps a half an inch to an inch higher.
Mr. DULLES. In this photograph. you happen to have your right arm on the side of the car. I don't know whether you recall that. That is Commission Exhibit 698. That just happened to be one pose at one particular time?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes; I don't think there is any question, Mr. Dulles, at various times we were turned in every direction. We had arms extended out of the car, on the side.
Mr. DULLES. That was taken earlier, I believe. Was that on Main Street? Where was that taken
Representative BOGGS. I wonder if I might ask a question?
The CHAIRMAN. Go right ahead.
Representative BOGGS. This is a little bit off the subject, but it is pretty well established that the Governor was shot and he has recovered. Do you have any reason to believe there was any conspiracy afoot for somebody to assassinate you?
Governor CONNALLY. None whatever.
Representative BOGGS. Had you ever received any threat from Lee Harvey Oswald of any kind?
Governor CONNALLY. No.
Representative BOGGS. Did you know him?
Governor CONNALLY. No.
Representative BOGGS. Had you ever seen him?
Governor CONNALLY. No.
Representative BOGGS. Have you ever had any belief of, subsequent to the assassination of President Kennedy and your own injury, that there was a conspiracy here of any kind?
Governor CONNALLY. None whatever.
Representative BOGGS. What is your theory about what happened?
Governor CONNALLY. Well, it is pure theory based on nothing more than what information is available to everyone, and probably less is available to me, certainly less than is available to you here on this Commission.
But I think you had an individual here with a completely warped, demented mind who, for whatever reason, wanted to do two things: First, to vent his anger, his hate, against many people and many things in a dramatic fashion that would carve for him, in however infamous a fashion, a niche in the history books of this country. And I think he deliberately set out to do just what he did, and that is the only thing that I can think of.
You ask me my theory, and that is my theory, and certainly not substantiated by any facts.
Representative BOGGS. Going on again, Governor, and again using the word "theory," do you have any reason to believe that there was any connection between Oswald and Ruby?
Governor CONNALLY. I have no reason to believe that there was; no, Congressman. By the same token, if you ask me do I have any reason not to believe it, I would have to answer the same, I don't know.
Representative BOGGS. Yes.
Governor CONNALLY. I just don't have any knowledge or any information about the background of either, and I am just not in a position to say.
Mr. DULLES. You recall your correspondence with Oswald in connection with Marine matters, when he thought you were still Secretary of the Navy?
Governor CONNALLY. After this was all over, I do, Mr. Dulles. As I recall, he wrote me a letter asking that his dishonorable discharge be corrected. But at the time he wrote the letter, if he had any reason about it at all, or shortly thereafter, he would have recognized that I had resigned as Secretary of the Navy a month before I got the letter, so it would really take a peculiar mind,


it seems to me, to harbor any grudge as a result of that when I had resigned as Secretary prior to the receipt of the letter.
Mr. DULLES. I think I can say without violating any confidence, that there is nothing in the record to indicate that there was--in fact, Marina, the wife, testified, in fact, to the contrary. There was no animus against you on the part of Oswald, as you----
Governor CONNALLY. I have wondered, of course, in my own mind as to whether or not there could have conceivably been anything, and the only--I suppose like any person at that particular moment, I represented authority to him. Perhaps he was in a rebellious spirit enough to where I was as much a target as anyone else. But that is the only conceivable basis on which I can assume that he was deliberately trying to hit me.
Representative BOGGS. You have no doubt about the fact that he was deliberately trying to hit you?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, I do; I do have doubt, Congressman. I am not at all sure he was shooting at me. I think I could with some logic argue either way. The logic in favor of him, of the position that he was shooting at me, is simply borne out by the fact that the man fired three shots, and he hit each of the three times he fired. He obviously was a pretty good marksman, so you have to assume to some extent at least that he was hitting what he was shooting at.
On the other hand, I think I could argue with equal logic that obviously his prime target, and I think really his sole target, was President Kennedy. His first shot, at least to him, he could not have but known the effect that it might have on the President. His second shot showed that he had clearly missed the President, and his result to him, as the result of the first shot, the President slumped and changed his position in the back seat just enough to expose my back. I haven't seen all of the various positions, but again I think from where he was shooting I was in the direct line of fire immediately in front of the President, so any movement on the part of the President would expose me.
The CHAIRMAN. Have you seen the moving pictures, Governor?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, sir; I have, Mr. Chief Justice.
Mr. SPECTER. Was there any point of exit on your thigh wound?
Governor CONNALLY. No.
Mr. SPECTER. (to Dr. Gregory.) Would you give the precise condition of the right wrist, and cover the thigh, too?
Dr. GREGORY. The present state of the wound on his wrist indicates that the linear scar made in the course of the excision is well healed; that its upper limb is about----
Governor CONNALLY. I thinks he wants you to describe the position of it.
Mr. SPECTER. Yes; the position.
Dr. GREGORY. I was about to do that. The upper limb of it is about 5 centimeters above the wrist joint, and curves around toward the thumb distally to about a centimeter above the wrist joint.
Mr. SPECTER. What is the total length of that?
Dr. GREGORY. The length of that excisional scar is about 4 centimeters, an inch and a half.
Mr. SPECTER. What is the wound appearing to be on the palmer side?
Dr. GREGORY. The wound on the palmer side of the wrist is now converted to a well-healed linear scar approximately one- haft inch in length, and located about three-quarters of an inch above the distal flexion crease.
Representative BOGGS. What is the prognosis for complete return of function there?
Dr. GREGORY. Very good, Congressman; very good.
Mr. SPECTER. Governor Connally, I now show you the black jacket and ask you if you can identify what that jacket is, whose it is?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, sir; that is mine.
Mr. SPECTER. When did you last wear that jacket?
Governor CONNALLY. On November 22 I was wearing this, the day of the shooting.


Mr. SPECTER. I show you Commission Exhibit 683 and ask you if that is a photograph of the front side of the jacket, as it appears at the moment?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes; it is.
Mr. SPECTER. I show you Exhibit 684, and ask if that is a photograph of the rear side of the jacket?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, sir; it is.
Mr. SPECTER. I now show you a shirt and ask you if you can identify this as having been the shirt you wore on the day of the assassination?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, sir; that is the shirt I had on.
Mr. SPECTER. I show you Exhibit 685 and ask if that is a picture of the rear side of the shirt?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes; it is.
Mr. SPECTER. Exhibit 686 is shown to you, and I ask you if that is a photograph of the front side of the shirt?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, sir; it is.
Mr. SPECTER. I show you a pair of black trousers. and ask you if you can identify them?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, sir; these are the trousers to the coat we looked at a moment ago. They were the trousers I was wearing on the day of the shooting.
Mr. SPECTER. I show you a photograph and ask you, which is Exhibit 687, if that is a photograph of the front of the trousers?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, sir; it is.
Mr. SPECTER. I show you Exhibit 688 and ask you if that depicts the rear of the trousers?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, sir; it does.
Mr. SPECTER. I show you a tie, and ask you if you can identify that?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, sir; that is the tie I was wearing on the day of the shooting.
Mr. SPECTER. I now show you a photograph marked Commission Exhibit 700 and ask if that is a picture of the tie?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, sir; it is.
Mr. SPECTER. What is the permanent home of these clothes at the present time when they are not on Commission business?
Governor CONNALLY. They, the Archives of the State of Texas, asked for the clothing, and I have given the clothing to them. That is where they were sent from, I believe, here, to this Commission.
Mr. SPECTER. At this juncture, Mr. Chief Justice, I move for the admission in evidence of Commission Exhibits 699 and 700.
The CHAIRMAN. They may be admitted.
(The items marked Commission Exhibits Nos. 699 and 700 for identification were received in evidence.)
Mr. SPECTER. Governor Connally, in 1963 we were informed that Lee Harvey Oswald paid a visit to Austin, Tex., and is supposed to also have visited your office. Do you have any knowledge of such a visit?
Governor CONNALLY. No, sir.
Mr. DULLES. What date did you give?
Mr. SPECTER. 1963.
Representative BOGGS. What date in 1963?
Mr. SPECTER. We do not have the exact date on that.
Representative BOGGS. Excuse me just a minute. Would your office records indicate such a visit?
Governor CONNALLY. It might or might not, Congressman. We have----
Representative BOGGS. That is what I would think.
Governor CONNALLY. We have there a reception room that is open from about 9:30 to 12 and from 2 to 4 every day, and depending on the time of the year there are literally hundreds of people who come in there. There would be as high as 80 at a time that come in groups, and a tour--this is a very large reception room which, frankly, we can't use for any other purpose because it is so useful for tourists, and they literally come in by the hundreds, and some days we will have a thousand people in that room on any given day. So for


me to say he never was in there, I couldn't do that; and he might well have been there, and no record of it in the office.
We make no attempt to keep a record of all the people who come in. If they come in small groups or if they have appointments with me, or one of my assistants, yes, we do. We keep records of people who come in and want to leave a card or leave word that they dropped by. But I have no knowledge that he ever came by.
Mr. SPECTER. Governor Connally, on your recitation of the events on the day of the assassination, you had come to the point where the shooting was concluded and the automobile had started to accelerate toward the hospital. What recollection do you have, if any, of the events on the way to the hospital from the assassination scene?
Governor CONNALLY. None really. I think at that point I had lost consciousness because I don't have any recollection, Mr. Specter, of anything that occurred on the way to the hospital. It was a very short period of time, but I don't remember it.
Mr. SPECTER. Do you have any recollection of your arrival at the hospital itself, at the Parkland Hospital?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes. I think when the car stopped the driver was obviously driving at a very rapid rate of speed, and apparently, as he threw on the brakes of the car, it brought me back to consciousness.
Again, a strange thing---strange things run through your mind and, perhaps, not so strange under the circumstances, but I immediately--the only thought that occurred to me was that I was in the jump seat next to the door, that everyone concerned, was going to be concerned with the President; that I had to get out of the way so they could get to the President. So although I was reclining, and again Mrs. Connally holding me, I suddenly lurched out of her arms and tried to stand upright to get myself out of the car.
I got--I don't really know how far I got. They tell me I got almost upright, and then just collapsed again, and someone then picked me up and put me on a stretcher. I again was very conscious because this was the first time that I had any real sensation of pain, and at this point the pain in the chest was excruciating, and I kept repeating just over and over, "My God, it hurts, it hurts," and it was hurting, it was excruciating at that point.
I was conscious then off and on during the time I was in the emergency room. I don't recall that I remember everything, but I remember quite a bit. I remember being wheeled down the passageway, I remember doctors and various people talking in the emergency room, I remember them asking me a number of questions, too, which I answered, but that was about it.
Mr. SPECTER. Do you know whether there was any bullet, or bullet fragments, that remained in your body or in your clothing as you were placed on the emergency stretcher at Parkland Hospital?
Governor CONNALLY. No.
Mr. SPECTER. Governor Connally, other than that which you have already testified to, do you know of any events or occurrences either before the trip or with the President in Texas during his trip, or after his trip, which could shed any light on the assassination itself?
Governor CONNALLY. None whatever.
Mr. SPECTER. Do you know of any conversations involving anyone at all, either before the trip, during the trip, or after the trip, other than those which you have already related, which would shed any light on the facts surrounding the assassination?
Governor CONNALLY. None whatever.
Mr. SPECTER. Do you have anything to add which you think would be helpful to the Commission in any way?
Governor CONNALLY. No, sir; Mr. Specter, I don't.
I want to express my gratitude to the Commission for hearing me so patiently, but I only wish I could have added something more that would be helpful to the Commission on arriving at the many answers to so many of these difficult problems, but I don't.
I can only say that it has taken some little time to describe the events and what happened. It is rather amazing in retrospect when you think really


what a short period of time it took for it to occur, in a matter of seconds, and if my memory is somewhat vague about precisely which way I was looking or where my hand or arm was, I can only say I hope it is understandable in the light of the fact that this was a very sudden thing. It was a very shocking thing.
I have often wondered myself why I never had the presence of mind enough--- I obviously did say something; I said, "Oh, no, no, no," and then I said, "My God, they are going to kill us all."
I don't know why I didn't say, "Get down in the car," but I didn't. You just never know why you react the way you do and Why you don't do some things you ought to do.
But I am again grateful to this Commission as a participant in this tragedy and as a citizen of this country, and I want to express, I think in behalf of millions of people, our gratitude for the time and energy and the dedication that this Commission has devoted to trying to supply the answers that people, I am sure, will be discussing for generations to come. I know it has been a difficult, long, laborious task for you, but I know that generations of the future Americans will be grateful for your efforts.
Representative BOGGS. Governor, I would like to say that we have had fine cooperation from all of your Texas officials, from the attorney general of the State, and from his people and others who have worked with the Commission.
Governor CONNALLY. Well, we are delighted, and I am very happy that the attorney general is here with us today.
Senator COOPER. May I ask one question?
The CHAIRMAN. Yes, Senator Cooper.
Senator COOPER. Governor, at the time you all passed the Texas School Book Depository, did you know that such a building was located there? Were you familiar with the building at all?
Governor CONNALLY. Just vaguely, Senator.
Senator COOPER. But now when you heard the shot, you turned to your right because you thought, as you said, that the shot came from that direction. As you turned, was that in the direction of the Texas School Book Depository?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, sir; it was.
Senator COOPER. Do you remember an overpass in front of you.
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, sir.
Senator COOPER. As you moved down?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, sir.
Senator COOPER. Were you aware at all of any sounds of rifleshots from the direction of the overpass, from the embankment?
Governor CONNALLY. No, sir; I don't believe there were such.
Senator COOPER. Well, you know, there have been stories.
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, sir; but 1 don't believe that.
Senator COOPER. I wanted to ask you if you were very conscious of the fact--you were conscious of a shot behind you, you were not aware of any shot from the embankment or overpass. The answer is what?
Governor CONNALLY. I am not aware of any shots from the overpass, Senator. Senator, I might repeat my testimony with emphasis to this extent, that I have all my life been familiar with the sound of a rifleshot, and the sound I heard I thought was a rifleshot, at the time I heard it I didn't think it was a firecracker, or blowout or anything else. I thought it was a rifleshot. I have hunted enough to think that my perception with respect to directions is very, very good, and this shot I heard came from back over my right shoulder, which was in the direction of the School Book Depository, no question about it. I heard no other. The first and third shots came from there. I heard no other sounds that would indicate to me there was any commotion or disturbance of shots or anything else on the overpass.
Senator COOPER. Would you describe again the nature of the shock that you had when you felt that you had been hit by a bullet?
Governor CONNALLY. Senator, the best way I can describe it is to say that I would say it is as if someone doubled his fist and came up behind you and just with about a 12-inch blow hit you right in the back right below the shoulder blade.


Senator COOPER. That is when you heard the first rifleshot?
Governor CONNALLY. This was after I heard the first rifleshot. There was no pain connected with it. There was no particular burning sensation. There was nothing more than that. I think you would feel almost the identical sensation I felt if someone came up behind you and just, with a short jab, hit you with a doubled-up fist just below the shoulder blade.
Senator COOPER. That is all.
Mr. SPECTER. I have just one other question, Governor. With respect to the films and the slides which you have viewed this morning, had you ever seen those pictures before this morning?
Governor CONNALLY. I had seen what purported to be a copy of the film when I was in the hospital in Dallas. I had not seen the slides.
Mr. SPECTER. And when do you think you were hit on those slides, Governor, or in what range of slides?
Governor CONNALLY. We took--you are talking about the number of the slides?
Governor CONNALLY. As we looked at them this morning, and as you related the numbers to me, it appeared to me that I was hit in the range between 130 or 131, I don't remember precisely, up to 134, in that bracket.
Mr. SPECTER. May I suggest to you that it was 231?
Governor CONNALLY. Well, 231 and 234, then.
Mr. SPECTER. The series under our numbering system starts with a higher number when the car comes around the turn, so when you come out of the sign, which was----
Governor CONNALLY. It was just after we came out of the sign, for whatever that sequence of numbers was, and if it was 200, I correct my testimony. It was 231 to about 234. It was within that range.
Mr. SPECTER. That is all.
The CHAIRMAN. Are there any other questions?
Mr. DULLES. I have one or two. Governor, were you consulted at all about the security arrangements in connection with the Dallas visit?
Governor CONNALLY. No, sir; not really; no, sir; and. let me add we normally are not.
Mr. DULLES. I realize that.
Governor CONNALLY. Mr. Dulles, the Secret Service, as you know, comes in, they work with both our department of public safety and the various city police, and the various localities in which we are going. So far as I know, there was complete cooperation on the part of everyone concerned, but I was not consulted.
Mr. DULLES. I think you mentioned that there was a slight change in plans before the arrival in San Antonio. I don't know whether it affects our investigation at all. Do you recall that?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes, sir; I don't know whether it--I don't think it affects the testimony at all. I was merely trying to relate some of the problems that had gone into planning a Presidential trip into four cities.
Mr. DULLES. Yes.
Governor CONNALLY. And trying to arrange this all initially within about a 12-hour period which had been expanded into a little more than that because the President finally agreed to come the day before, and come into San Antonio on the afternoon before the Thomas dinner on Thursday night.
Mr. DULLES. That was the change you had in mind?
Governor CONNALLY. This was the change. This gave us much more latitude because it permitted us to go into San Antonio, which is one of the major stops, which was the major stop, really, because he dedicated the Aerospace Medical Center on Thursday, which meant we did not have to crowd Thursday. But there was a change, but not significant to this investigation.
Mr. DULLES. Do you happen to recall in general when the decision was reached that the visit would include a trip to Dallas, or was that always a part?
Governor CONNALLY. I think it was always a part.
Mr. DULLES. Of the planning?
Governor CONNALLY. Yes; I think it was always a part. There was consideration given, if you had to leave out some place, let us leave out Dallas or let us


leave out this one or that one, but there was no question, I don't think, in anyone's mind if we made more than one stop in the big cities that we were going to try to make them all, San Antonio, Houston, Dallas, and Fort Worth.
Mr. DULLES. You do not recall seeing anyone approach the car outside of those who were in the procession just prior to the shooting, anyone from the sidewalk or along the street there, in the park, which was on one side?
Governor CONNALLY. No, sir; I sure don't.
Mr. DULLES. You and one other happen to be the only witnesses who have indicated that they recognized it as being a rifleshot. The other witness, like you, was a huntsman. Most of the witnesses have indicated they thought it was a backfire; the first shot was a backfire or a firecracker.
Can you distinguish, what is there that distinguishes a rifleshot from a backfire or a firecracker? Can you tell, or is it just instinct?
Governor CONNALLY. I am not sure I could accurately describe it. I don't know that I have ever attempted to. I would say a firecracker or a blowout has more of a hollow, bursting kind of sound, as if you popped a balloon, or something of this sort. A rifleshot, on the other hand, to me has more of a ring, kind of an echo to it, more of a metallic sound to it. It is a more penetrating sound than a firecracker or a blowout. It carries----
Mr. DULLES. That gives me what I had in mind. I realize that. That is all I have, Mr. Chief Justice.
The CHAIRMAN. Thank you very much. We are very appreciative of the help you have given us.
Senator COOPER. May I ask just one question?
The CHAIRMAN. We hate to have you review all of this sordid thing again.
Senator COOPER. May I ask a rather general question? I would like to ask, in view of all the discussion which has been had, was there any official discussion of any kind before this trip of which you were aware that there might be some act of violence against the President?
Governor CONNALLY. No, sir.
Senator COOPER. Thank you.
Governor CONNALLY. No; let me say that there have been several news stories----
Senator COOPER. Yes, I know.
Governor CONNALLY. That purportedly quoted me about not wanting the President to ride in a motorcade or caravan in Dallas. That is very true. But the implication was that I had some fear of his life, which is not true.
The reason I didn't want him to do it at the time it came up was simply we were running out of time, and that, I thought, we were working him much too hard. This again was before the change, moving San Antonio to Thursday instead of having it all on one day, and I was opposed to a motorcade because they do drain energy, and it takes time to do it, and I didn't think we had the time.
But once we got San Antonio moved from Friday to Thursday afternoon, where that was his initial stop in Texas, then we had the time, and I withdrew my objections to a motorcade.
The CHAIRMAN. Thank you very much, Governor.
Governor CONNALLY. Thank you, sir.

Home .. Alphabetical list of witnesses